Matrices in Pine Script™ offer a powerful way to handle and manipulate data in a structured two-dimensional format. They allow developers to organize data in rows and columns, facilitating complex calculations and data analysis within trading scripts. Understanding matrices and their capabilities can significantly enhance the functionality and efficiency of Pine Script-based indicators and strategies.

### What are Matrices in Pine Script™?

Matrices are similar to two-dimensional arrays, but they come with specialized functions and methods designed for more efficient data manipulation and mathematical operations. They store collections of values or references in a rectangular grid, where each element can be accessed using a pair of indices: one for the row and the other for the column. This dual-index system makes it easy to organize and retrieve data systematically.

### Features of Matrices in Pine Script™:

**Homogeneous Data Type**: All elements within a matrix must be of the same type. Pine Script™ supports both built-in types (such as integer, float, bool) and user-defined types for matrix elements.**Dynamic Sizing**: Unlike traditional arrays in some programming languages, matrices in Pine Script™ can have a dynamic number of rows and columns that adjust over different bars, providing flexibility in data handling.**Indexing**: Matrices use zero-based indexing for both rows and columns, allowing for intuitive access and manipulation of data within the matrix.**Capacity Limit**: The total number of elements a matrix can hold is capped at 100,000, similar to arrays. This limit ensures performance efficiency and resource management within the Pine Script™ environment.**Specialized Functions**: Pine Script™ provides a range of functions and methods specifically designed for working with matrices, including those for inspection, modification, and performing specialized calculations.

### Practical Application of Matrices:

Matrices in Pine Script™ are invaluable for scenarios requiring the organization of data in a two-dimensional structure. They are particularly useful for:

**Statistical Analysis**: Performing complex statistical calculations over a set of data, such as moving averages, correlation matrices, or variance-covariance matrices.**Financial Modeling**: Building financial models that require grid-like data structures, for instance, option pricing models or portfolio optimization matrices.**Data Transformation**: Applying transformations or filters to two-dimensional data sets, such as image processing techniques or custom data manipulations.

By leveraging matrices, developers can significantly reduce the complexity of their code, improve execution efficiency, and unlock new possibilities for data analysis and manipulation in Pine Script™.