Pine Script™ provides a flexible syntax for declaring matrices, a fundamental feature for users looking to perform complex mathematical operations or data handling within their trading scripts. This guide will walk you through the syntax and examples of how to declare matrices in Pine Script, ensuring you understand the process and can apply it to your own trading strategies.

### Understanding Matrix Declaration Syntax

When declaring a matrix in Pine Script, the syntax follows a specific pattern designed to clearly specify the type of data the matrix will contain and its initial state. The general syntax for declaring a matrix is as follows:

[var/varip ][matrix<type> ]<identifier> = <expression>

**<type>**: This is a type template for the matrix, declaring the type of values it will contain.**<expression>**: This returns either a matrix instance of the specified type or`na`

(not available).

### Declaring a Matrix Variable as `na`

To declare a matrix variable without assigning it an initial value, use the `na`

keyword. This approach requires specifying the matrix type:

matrix<float> floatMatrix = na

This line of code declares a new variable `floatMatrix`

as a matrix containing float values, but it does not assign any initial values, indicating that the matrix is not yet available or initialized.

### Declaring a Matrix with Initial Values

When you want to declare a matrix and assign it initial values, the explicit type declaration becomes optional if the assignment provides clear type information:

numericMatrix = matrix.new<float>(2, 2, 0.0)

Here, `numericMatrix`

is assigned a new matrix instance with two rows and two columns, each initialized to `0.0`

. Since the matrix is created with a specific type (`float`

), the variable `numericMatrix`

inherits this type, making an explicit type declaration unnecessary.

### Code Walkthrough

**Matrix Declaration with**:`na`

`matrix<float> floatMatrix = na`

: This line introduces a matrix variable named`floatMatrix`

that is intended to hold float values. However, it’s initially set to`na`

, indicating that it doesn’t yet reference an actual matrix.

**Matrix Declaration with Initial Values**:`numericMatrix = matrix.new<float>(2, 2, 0.0)`

: In this expression,`numericMatrix`

is directly assigned a newly created matrix of type`float`

with dimensions 2×2, where every element is initialized to`0.0`

. The explicit type (`<float>`

) in the`matrix.new`

function call ensures that the script understands the nature of`numericMatrix`

without needing a separate type declaration.

### Key Features and Takeaways

**Flexibility in Declaration**: Pine Script allows for both explicitly typed matrix declarations and type inference from the assigned values.**Type Template**: The`<type>`

template in the declaration ensures type safety, allowing only values of a specified type to be stored in the matrix.**Initial Value Assignment**: Matrices can be initialized with values at the time of declaration, facilitating immediate use in calculations or data processing.: Declaring a matrix as`na`

Declaration`na`

is useful for scenarios where the matrix will be assigned later in the script, ensuring type safety from the outset.

Understanding how to declare matrices in Pine Script is crucial for developers looking to perform advanced data analysis or mathematical operations within their trading algorithms. The flexibility of the syntax supports a wide range of applications, from simple data storage to complex numerical computations.